Trump faces a May 12 deadline to either continue suspending sanctions targeting Iran’s oil exports or snap the penalties back into place. Refusing to grant the sanctions relief would imperil the nuclear agreement and potentially put the United States on a diplomatic collision course with some of its closest allies and trade partners.
Under the terms of the 2015 nuclear deal, the international community agreed to continue suspending sanctions against Iran so long as it lives up to the terms of the accord. In exchange for sanctions Iran to accept limits on its nuclear program and grant access to atomic facilities to international inspectors.
While Iran remains in compliance, Trump has threatened to scrap the accord anyway. In January, he said he would no longer waive sanctions unless his administration can reach a deal with European partners to toughen the terms of the 2015 accord.
Despite recent meetings with foreign leaders, that deal has not yet emerged.